Silicone fluid = Dimethicone = Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)
Dimethicones are well known for their lubricity, spreadability, excellent skin feel and superior conditioning properties. Due to these properties, dimethicones are used extensively in personal care formulations. Further to this they provide excellent and even surface coverage, long lasting durability, soft, smooth, lightly textured feel, moisturization without a greasy feel, emolliency without an oily feel and shiny appearance.
Dimethicones have the advantages of being very safe and having low irritancy to the skin and scalp. Dimethicones range in viscosity from 5 cSt through to very high viscosities and gums. A very wide range of viscosity dimethicone fluids are available from Flexichem.
Cyclomethicones are polydimethylsiloxanes with a cyclic or ring structure which readily evaporate.
In cosmetic formulations they are ideal formulation aids as they spread very readily on the skin and provide excellent lubrication. They act as emollients and detackifying agents upon application and then volatilise without a residue.
They have low viscosity and impart water repellency, with smooth application and a light feel. Cyclomethicones aid the slow release of perfumes due to their slow evaporation rate when in contact with the skin. Commonly used in skin and face creams, hair care products, and in anti-perspirants.
- CV1005 – Cyclomethicone (INCI Name: Cyclopentasiloxane).
- CVM155 – Cyclomethicone (INCI Name: Cyclopentasiloxane (and) Cyclohexasiloxane).
- CVM156 – Cyclomethicone (INCI Name: Cyclopentasiloxane (and) Cyclohexasiloxane).
Dimethicones are linear, methyl-stopped polydimethylsiloxanes and are available in a wide range of viscosities varying from water-like to slow moving gums.
Low viscosity dimethicones act as non-oily emollients and enhance the spreadability and rubbing ability of the formulation.
High viscosity dimethicones give a soft and velvet-like feel to the skin and form a long-lasting film which acts as a water resistant barrier. They are used in such applications as hair sprays, shampoos, conditioners, skin creams and lip sticks.
The number in the product name indicates the viscosity in centistokes (cSt) at 25°C.
For example, CF100 has a viscosity of 100 cSt, while CF12.5K has a viscosity of 12,500 cSt.
- Low Viscosity Fluid
- CF0.65, CF10, CF20, CF50, CF100, CF200, CF350, CF500, CF1000 are all flowable, low viscosity silicones used for their smooth feel, lubricity, and gloss.
- High Viscosity Fluids
- CF5K, CF10K, CF12.5K, CF30K, CF60K, CF100K are higher viscosity fluids and impart high gloss to surfaces, excellent conditioning, higher retentivity once applied, and good lubricity.
- Gums are the highest viscosity silicone fluid. This material is virtually solid and requires special equipment to handle. It is generally uneconomic to use in the pure form and for these reasons they are most commonly supplied as blends suitable for use in personal care formulations.
Blends of silicones impart the properties of very different silicones and silicone derivatives together in a one package product. Some dimethicones are difficult to handle on their own but as a blend they can be delivered in an appropriate way into the personal care formulation.
- Gum Blends
- Silicone gum blends are an ideal delivery system for high molecular weight dimethicone and dimethiconol gums and consist of a high molecular weight gum with a low molecular weight dimethicone or cyclomethicone as a carrier.
- Cyclomethicone and low molecular weight dimethicones help in the formulation to spread the dimethicone and dimethiconol uniformly across the skin’s surface. They then volatise to leave a thin film of dimethicone or dimethiconol gum on the skin giving a soft, smooth, velvet like touch. The film stays in place to hold active ingredients on the skin and provide a water-resistant barrier.
- Cyclomethicones also aid in the emulsification of the high molecular weight dimethicone and dimethiconol if required.
- Gums blends are available in dimethicone (methyl terminated) or dimethiconol (hydroxy terminated).
- CGV1010 – High molecular weight dimethicone and cyclopentasiloxane gum blend (INCI Name: Cyclopentasiloxane (and) Dimethicone).
- CGV1050 – High molecular weight dimethicone cyclopentasiloxane gum blend (INCI Name: Cyclopentasiloxane (and) Dimethiconol).
- CGF1015 – Dimethiconol gum / dimethicone fluid blend (cyclomethicone free) (INCI Name: Dimethicone (and) Dimethiconol).
- CGF5015 – Dimethiconol gum / dimethicone fluid blend (cyclomethicone free) (INCI Name Dimethicone (and) Dimethiconol).
- CGP1020 – High molecular weight dimethicone in cosmetic grade hydrocarbon. Ued in hair and skin formulations. (INCI Name: Dimethicone (and) hydrogenated Polyisobutene).
- CSS500 – a semi-water soluble, silicone based, surface active copolyol material. It is used in place of CSS550 when greater organic compatibility is required. It is a free flowing liquid of straw to light brown colour. (INCI: PEG/PPG 18/18 Dimethicone).
- CSS550 – a water soluble, silicone based surface active copolyol material. It is a free flowing liquid of straw colour. (INCI: PEG-12 Dimethicone).
- SQT22 – aminoquaternary functional silicone giving excellent softness, gloss and handle to the hair and skin. (INCI Name: Quaternium 80).
- CCF1030 – amino silicone fluid suitable for use in skin and hair care to impart soft skin feel and silky, long lasting hair conditioning. (INCI Name: Amodimethicone).
- CCF1060 – amino silicone fluid suitable for use in skin and hair care to impart soft skin feel and silky, long lasting hair conditioning. (INCI Name: Amodimethicone).
- CCF1030 and CCF1060 are best applied as water based emulsions and are supplied in this form by Flexichem. Formulations using these products are available from Flexichem and are outlined in the Silicone Emulsion section below.
- CCE1122 – Aminosilicone microemulsion (INCI Name: Amodimethicone).
- CCE1130 – Aminosilicone microemulsion (INCI Name: Amodimethicone).
Water based emulsions of dimethicones are a mixture of dimethicones and/or cyclomethicones in a water and surfactant dispersion. The emulsions provide a very convenient and safe way to deliver dimethicones into formulations.
They are especially useful for skin creams to provide silky lustre to the skin. In hair care products they act as conditioners providing gloss, body and richness to the hair.
- CDE6060BB – a creamy, white dimethicone emulsions with high stability and spreadability. These are very compatible with a range of formulating additives and give traditional silicone feel to creams and lotions, and excellent conditioning in 2 in 1 shampoos. Silicone content 60%. (INCI: Dimethicone (and) Laureth-4 and Laureth-23).
- PF15022A – a near clear emulsion of amodimethicone fluid. It gives a long lasting, silky feel to the hair and skin and is best formulated in nonionic or cationic systems. Silicone content 35%. (INCI Name: Amodimethicone (and) Cetrimonium Chloride (and) Trideceth-12).
- CCE1122 – Aminosilicone microemulsion that provides a silky feel to the hair and skin, and is best formulated in non-ionic or cationic systems. It can be used in preparing clear formulations with either leave in or daily use applications. (INCI Name: Amodimethicone (and) C12-C14 sec-Pareth-5 (and) C12-C14 sec-Pareth-7).
- CCE1130 – Aminosilicone microemulsion that provides a silky feel to the hair and skin, and is best formulated in non-ionic or cationic systems. It can be used in preparing clear formulations with either leave in or daily use applications. (INCI Name: Amodimethicone (and) C12-C14 sec-Pareth-5 (and) C12-C14 sec-Pareth-7 ).
- CDE50UM and CRE60UM are emulsions having ultra-high molecular weight dimethicones in the formulation. These provide a soft lustre and velvet-like feel to the skin, and are very useful as conditioners for hair care. Silicone content 50% and 60%.